(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The piano-forte primer; : containing the rudiments of music: calculated either for private tuition or teaching classes."

se^5^ — S W& 






** 







"7 



M 



v/'/Y/ /rs 4 



</ 




THE 



PIANO-FORTE PRIMER; 



CONTAINING 



The Rudiments of X&usic 



CALCULATED EITHER FOR 



PRIVATE TUITION 



OR 



TEACHING JJV CLASSES. 



BY J. F. BIRROWES 



FROM THE SEVENTH LONDON EDITION. 



AVITH ADDITIONS. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY G. E. BLAKE, No. 13, S. FIFTH-S i , 

BALTIMORE : 

BY JOHN COLE, No. 137, MARKET-ST. 



J. Robinson, printer. 



fro'f ( ■ S~i — 




3 1 3.r/3 



/, tn i- 



PREFACE. 



The rapid sale of this little Work, and 
the flattering approbation which has been 
bestowed upon it by many of the most 
eminent Professors, have given great sa- 
tisfaction to the Author. In presenting 
another Edition to the Masical World, 
he begs to repeat, that it is not intended 
to interfere with the mode of instruction 
which any Master has already adopted, 
but to be used either in private Tuition 
or teaching in Classes, in addition to the 
regular Lessons already in use. 

The Author thinks it necessary to re- 
peat, that he does not offer this Book as 
containing any thing tipav ; yet he hopes 
it will be found useful in explaining the 
Rudiments, and thereby enabling the 
Master to devote more time to other im- 
portant branches of Music. 

The following remarks, although cer- 



IV PREFACE. 

tainly superfluous to Professors in general, 
he hopes will not be thought intrusive. 

The principal object of every Teacher 
should be, to make his Pupils thoroughly 
comprehend one question, hefore they 
proceed to another; for this purpose each 
one should be provided with a Music- 
slate, upon which, after explanation, the 
Teacher should write an exercise drawn 
from the questions or the Appendix, leav- 
ing the blanks to be filled up by the Pupils. 

Every exercise should be repeated, and 
the form of it varied, until it be done with- 
out a mistake, and until the Pupil be able 
to give an Example upon the Instrument, 
or answer any question, whether proposed 
in the regular order or otherwise. This 
will be attended with a little trouble to the 
Master in the first instance only, as the 
Author recommends that the Learners of 
the second Chapter, should be Teachers of 
the first ; and this should be done at a dis- 
tant part of the room in which the Master 
is giving his Lessons at the Piano-Forte, 
that he may, by way of keeping up the 



PREFACE. 



attention of the Scholars, occasionally in- 
spect their Examples ; and it is recom- 
mended that an Examination of the whole 
School should take place at stated periods. 
On the suhject of Teaching in Classes, 
it may perhaps be necessary to say a few 
words. The Author has practised it for 
some years, whenever an opportunity has 
offered, and he is of opinion, that so far 
as relates to the Rudiments of Music, and 
of Thorough Base, (which this Book does 
not treat of), it is highly advantageous — 
not only on account of the emulation 
which it excites in the Scholars, but also 
on account of the time which it saves. 
Much more, however, is necessary, in 
playing the Piano Forte, than mere ac- 
curacy. The Author therefore is strongly 
of opinion, that only one should be taught 
to play at a time; for, independently of 
reading the Notes, striking the proper 
Keys with the proper fingers, &c &c. the 
greatest attention is requisite, both on 
the part of Master and Scholar, to the 
position of the band, and manner of play- 



VI PREFACE. 

ing*. The Author, however, by no means 
wishes it to be understood, that he is 
averse to the Pupils playing occasionally 
together, what they have first learned se- 
parately ; on the contrary, he thinks it 
highly desirable, particularly where they 
have contracted any hesitation in their 
manner. In this case, he has found great 
advantage in making one Scholar play the 
Treble and another the Base, or in mak- 
ing the second Scholar play an Octave 
above the Treble or below the Base, while 
the other is playing the Lesson with both 
hands : or, what is a still more common 



* To those who are unacquainted with the Piano-Forte, 
a few words in explanation of what is meant by " manner 
of playing," may be necessary. In the first place, one 
Key must be held down until the next is struck, and no 
longer : a deviation from this rule, will either produce a 
want of clearness, or want of connexion of every passage 
that is played : after a habit of doing this is acquired, the 
exceptions must be attendeu to; which are, to raise the 
fingers from all the Notes that are to be repeated, and 
from those which have particular marks set over them, as 
well as at the rtests. More, it is conceived, need not be 
said, to convince any one of the impossibility of teaching 
properly a number of Scholars together. 



PREFACE-. Yil 

practice, by adding an Accompaniment 
himself. 

To those who may not have already 
taught their Pupils in Classes, the Author 
ventures to surest the following outline 



33 



of a plan for forming 

Classes for Music in Schools. 

The School to be divided into Classes 
by the Master; one whole Class to at- 
tend at a time, with one Pupil from the 
Class next above, as Teacher. 

Each Pupil to be Teacher in turn. 

The Pupils not to be admitted into an 
upper Class, until they have passed regu- 
larly through, and can give all the requi- 
site Examples in the lower Classes, 

Pupils of talent to be removed to the 
upper (lasses as soon as the Master finds 
them qualified, without waiting for those 
who are less rapid in their improvement. 

The Exercises of each Class to be ap- 
pointed by the Master. They may be 
selected either from the Primer, or bv 



Vin PREFACE. 



making the Pupils explain to the Teacher 
the Lesson about to be played ; both the 
Time marked, and manner of counting it 
throughout, pointing out those Notes 
from which the fingers are to be raised, 
those Notes which are to be held down, 
the reasons for the fingering, &c. &c. 

The Classes to be held only during the 
time the Master is giving his Lessons at 
the Piano Forte. 

The younger Pupils to be attended at 
their daily practice by one of the elder 
ones, who is to be appointed by the 
Master. 

After being made thoroughly acquaint- 
ed with the contents of this Book, the 
Pupils may proceed to the study of Har- 
mony, and the practice of playing from 
Figured Bases* 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. I. 

PAGE 

Of the Keys, Staff, &c 1 

CHAP. II. 

Of the Length of Notes, Rests, 8cc. 7 

CHAP. III. 
Of Time, 11 

CHAP. IV. 
Of the Position of the Hand, and Manner of Play- 
ing, &c 14 

CHAP. V. 
Of Sharps, Flats, &c 17 

CHAP. VI. 

Of Common Characters used in Music, 20 

CHAP. VII. 
Of Graces, and Common Marks of Expression, 35 

CHAP. VIII. 
Of Intervals, 31 

CHAP. IX. 

Of the Signature, .18 

CHAP. X. 

Of the Formation of the Scale, .. •• 41 

CPIAP. XI. 
Of various Characters used in Music, 51 

CHAP. XII. 
Of the Common Terms relating to Time, &c. 57 
APPEMDIX, 



THE 

PIANOFORTE PBIMER. 



CHAR I. 

OF THE KEYS, STAFF, fee. 

JLXOW are the Keys of the Piano-Forte named? 

From the first seven letters of the alphabet : 
the Eighth, or Octave, is a repetition of the 
first. Example, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B., 
C, &c. 

How are the Letters applied to the Keys? 

First, by observing that the Black Keys are 
divided into groups of two and three. D, is 
between the two Black Keys ; G, is on the left, 
and A, on the right, between the three Black 
ones. 



2 ©HAP. I. KEYS, STAFF, &C. 

Describe the situation of the others. 

C, is on the left; and E, on the right hand 
side of D. 

F, is on the left of G; and B, on the right 
of A. 

What is a Staff? 

A Staff consists of five Lines and four Spaces, 
upon which the Notes are placed, and named 
regularly by degrees. 

Xarae the Degress of the Staff upwards and downwards. 



y. 



5th Line 



4th Space, 
4th Line 



3d Space. 
3rd Line. 



2d Space. 

1st Space. 
1st or lowest Line. — 



Suppose a Note upon the first Line is catted E, what will 
be the name of a Note in the first Space? 

If the first Line is E, the first Space will be 
F; the second Line G, the second Space A^ 
&c. &c. 

By what means is a particular letter applied to a Note, 
upon any degree of the Staff? 

By a Clef, or Key to the Notes, which is 
placed at the beginning of the Staff. 



CHAP. I. — KEYS, STAFF, &C. 3 

What Clefs are in present use for the Piano-Forte ? 

The G, or Treble Clef, fe^~^ generally 
used for the right hand, or upper part ; and the 



F, or Base Clef, ^— — generally used for 
the left hand, or lower part. 

Upon what line is the Treble Clef placed? 

The G, or Treble Clef, is placed upon the 
second Line ; consequently, the Note upon that 
Line is called G, or Clef Note. 

Name the Treble Notes, upwards and downwards from tb» 
Clef Note. 

A B C D E F 

»zz:zz:zzz:zzzzzzz-zz*zz*zz*:: 

:zzz:zz:z£z:z£zz±zz^zzzzzzzzzz 

-•• — ■*■ 

E F G, 

or Clef Note. 

Give an Exercise upon the foregoing Treble Notes. 

Upon what Line is the Base Clef placed? 

The F, or Base Clef, is placed upon the fourth 
Line; consequently, the Note upon the fourth 
Line is called F, or the Base Clef Note. 

2 



4 



p. i. — 



•-arJs fro i 



G 



C 



a. 



e— ■■ 






.A. 

A 



D E or 



an erercise upon the foregoing Base Notes. 
. jr or lower Notes written? 

above, or belcw Ledger Lines, which 
are drawn above and below the Staff. 



„rces above and below the Staff. 



SR. _ 






- — &c. 



Note 



rl.f 1st 



. 



Line, 



the Above 



tJic 3d 



lie! 



H 



Upon the 
3J, See. 

■ 



id. 



CHA? I — KEYS, STAFF, &C. 



.-< 

c 
ha 

US 



t 

B #i 



8 fe 



p 



•i 



n~i 



M 



O 



M 






P 

o 



• B 



t— ■ 
O 

C 



B 
s 

_ 





rr i 


T~» 


«*!i|! 


! 1 

1 ! 


p 


1 


! 1 

1 I 
1 \ 


o 


*i i 


I } 
i i 


pq 


i l i 
i l 1 


i ' 

i 1 

i i 


< 


1 1 1 

el 1 
i 1 1 


i I 
i 1 





i i i 


i l 




I i ! 


1 1 




JO 

i i ! 


i 1 
i i 

1 I 




i P 


j 1 




i ; 


i i 




1 I 

1 \i 


1 i 
* i I 




1 i 
I 1 

1 ! 
i i 


i i 

1 1 

ft 1 
> > 




i I 

! I 


$ ) 

41 




i i 

i I 

I i 

1 1 
i i 

! 1 

1 i 


i 1 
Pi 
1 I 

[if 

i i 




! I 
i i 


i P 
i i i 




! 


i 1 ! 




j t 


< I i 




I i 


I I ) 




i ; 


1 1 1 




I 1 


1 I ! 




i i 


i ' I 




! I 

I 1 

1 I 
i i 


i i i 
1 1 1 

! 1 i 

1 1 1 




1 f 

I 1 


1 1 1 

1 1 ) 




1 I 


i 1 ) 




1 1 


i t i 




1 I 


1 ! i 



* 






w 



Ex 
U 

a 
p 

B 
< 

P 

u 

B 
< 



P 



6 CHAP. I. — KEYS, STAFF, &C. 

Give Exercises upon the foregoing Treble and Base Note*. 

How is the situation of the Clef Notes determined on the 
Piano-Forte? 

First, by finding that C, which is nearest the 
middle of the instrument, called middle C : the 
G, or Treble Clef Note, is the first G above, 
or on the right hand -side of it. 

The F, or Base Clef Note, is the first F 
below, or on the left-hand side of middle C. 

How are the situations of the other Notes determined? 

By going to the right, for those above ; and 
to the left, for those below the Clef Notes. 

Give an Exercise for naming and striking some Treble an4 
Base Notes. 



CHAP, II. 

OF THE LENGTH OF NOTES, RESTS, fes 



How many different sorts of Notes are in general us«? 

Six. 

Describe and shew their different forms. 



— T — « — ^T — p_„T — ^ — I — & — IT— ^— 



Seraibreve. Minim. Crotchet. Quaver. Semiquaver. Demisemi- 

quaver. 

What proportion do they bear to each other? 

Each Note is only half the length of the one 
preceding; for example, a Minim is only half 
as long as a Semibreve, consequently one Semi- 
breve is as long as two Minims. 

Suppose you wish to know how many Semiquavers a« 
equal to a Semibreve or Minim, in what manner will you 
reckon them? 

By beginning from any one, and proceeding 
in rotation, always doubling the number; for 
2* 



8 CHAP. II. — LENGTH OP NOTES, RESTS, &C. 



example, One Crotchet is as long as Two 
Quavers, Four Semiquavers, or Eight Demise- 
miquavers. 



Repeat the general Table of the value of Notes.. 



Sal 

s :§ i 

ui S O 

O = 2 — 4 







C 






a 






> 




to 


3 




o 


c* 


CO 


& 


s 


Fh 


S3 


CD 


O 


a< 


CO 


£ 


i 


s 


3 


CI) 


s 


& 


GG 


o 


8 = 


16 = 


= 33 



r 



r 



r 



8 = 18 
4 — 8 
2 « 4 



** 
^ 



Name the half, the fourth, the eighth, the sixteenth of t S*- 
znibreve ; of a Minim, Crotchet, Quaver, 8tc. 

What are Rests ? 

Marks for Silence, corresponding with the dif- 
ferent Notes* 



CHAP. II — LENGTH OF NOTES, RESTS, &C. S 

Describe and shew them. 

Semibreve. Minim. Crotchet. Quaver. Semiquaver, Demise- 
Rest, miquaver. 



— V k 7 1 f-f ^ 



Under a Over a Turned :o Turned to With two With threy 
Line. Line. the right. the left. Heads. Heads. 



What is the use of a Dot after any Note or Rest ? 

A Dot is equal to half the preceding Note ; 
consequently, a Semibreve with a Dot, is equal 
to three Minims, or six Crotchets, &c. A Dot- 
ted Crotchet is as long as three Quavers, &c. 



ZIIZQZZZZ™ 



s 



:o'— or"-pz 



A 



l " — r- 



What is a Triplet ? 

When three Quavers, instead of two, are play- 
ed to a Crotchet, they are called a Triplet; or 
three Semiquavers, instead of two, to a Quaver ; 
md in the same proportion to all the other Notes. 



10 CHAP. II. — LENGTH OF NOTES, RESTS, &C. 

Triplets are generally, but not always, marked 
with a figure of 3. 




7 » 1 - rr 

zziLizzdzzizzz 



3 



*7 — 



;3=z::z±z 






ffZIZ 



A figure of 6 is sometimes placed over six Quavers or Semi- 
quavers, &.c. What does it signify ? 

It signifies that the six Quavers are to be play- 
ed in the time of four, or in the time of one 
Minim. 




feaJ ,... fTPT Fg 



11 

CHAP. 111. 

OF TIME. 



What are Bars ? 

Short Lines drawn across the Staff, to divide 
the Music into equal portions ; but the Music be- 
tween two of these, is also called a Bar, or Mea- 
sure. 

How many sorts of Time are there ? 

Two : Common Time, and Triple time. 

What is meant by Common Time ? 

An even number of parts in a Bar, as Two t 
Four, Six, or Twelve. 

What is meant by Triple Time ? 

An odd number of parts, as Three or Nine. 

How is the time marked ? 

At the beginning of every piece of Music ; 

sometimes it is marked by a | which signifies 

Common Time, and the Bar then contains the 
value of a Semibreve, but generally expressed 
four Crotchets in a Bar : the Time is also occa- 
sionally marked by two Figures, which have a 
reference to the Semibreve. 



It CHAP. III. TIME. 

i 

How do the figures refer to the Semibreve f 

The lowest figure shews into how man) 7 parts 
the Semibreve is divided, and the upper Figure 
shews how many of those parts are to be in a 
Bar. 

Name the Divisions of a Semibreve. 

A Semibreve divided into two parts, will be- 
come Minims : divided into four parts, it will be- 
come Crotchets: divided into eight pares, it will 
become Quavers : consequently, the figure of 2, 
represents Minims; the figure of 4, represents 
Crotchets ; and the figure of 8, represents Qua- 
vers. 

Explain the following 1 marks of Time : pointing out whi«» 
are Common, and which are Triple Tim' 



1 



zJzizfcizzfOEirzlzM; 




How many sorts of Common and Triple Time are there ? 

Two of each, viz : Simple and Compound. 



CHAP. III. TI3IB. 13 

If are they distinsruLshed ? 

t way is to remember, that if the 
fotes, e- sed by the t , i3 

i r t is Simple ; but if it is 6, or more 

than 6, it is Compound. 

narks of Time, pointing- out which are 
Sim 

Time exactly as expressed by th« 

. Two Crotchets may be counted as four 
three Crotchets as six Quavers, Lc. 

.he time to be counted, if the piece contains Trip- 

I 

Ii must be counted by the value of the Trip- 
let : re are three Quavers to 
a C . '., the Time must be counted by Ci 
chets : if there are three Semiquavers to a Qua- 
ver, it must be counted by Quavers, 



14 



CHAP. IV. 



OF THE POSITION OF THE HAND, AN* 
MANlNER OF PLAYING, &c. 



In what position should the hand and arm be held / 

The hand and arm should be even, neither 
raising nor depressing the wrist; the fingers 
should be bent at the middle joint, so as to bring 
the points of them even with the end of the 
thumb. 

How many Keys should be covered by the hand in its natu- 
ral position ? 

Five ; one finger over the centre of each Key. 
In pressing down a Key with one finger, car* 
must be taken not to move the others. 

How many Keys are to be held down at a time ? 

Generally speaking, one; and that must be 
kept down until the next Key is struck, but not 
longer. When two or more Keys are struck at 
one time, they are considered but as one, and 
they must be held down until the next Keys are 
struck. 

In what cases should the fingers be raised P 

When any Key is struck more than once, it 



CHAP. IV. — POSITION OF THE HAND, &C. 15 

should be raised every time but the last; and the 
fingers must of course be raised whenever a Rest 
appears. 

What is the meaning of playing Legato ? 

It signifies playing smoothly, always keeping 
one Key down until the next be struck. 

What is playing Staccato? 

Separating the Notes from each other, or 

raising the finger from one Key before the other 
is down. 

What is a slur? ^-^ ^"^s 

It is a curved line, drawn over, or under, two 
or more notes, to signify that they are to be 
played Legato. 

What is a Tie or Bind? s*^\ ^^ 

It is of the same form as a Slur, but placed 
to two Notes alike : it binds the second to the 
first, so that only the first is to be struck; but 
the finger must be held down the full time of 
both. 

How are Notes marked which are to be played Staccato? 

With round dots or pointed specks, above or 
below them: those with dots, are to be played 

3 



1G CHAP. IV. POSITION OF THE HAND, &0, 



moderately staccato; those with specks, very 
much so. 

Play the following passage, in the three different ways it 
is marked. 



jzgggggzP- 



_^_ — 



■P-4- 



E2Efc 



ZZt 



How are Notes to be played which are marked witli 
Dots and Slurs also? 

On a repetition of the same Note, they should 
be played as closely as possible. 




When Notes, thus marked, are played in 
succession, the fingers should be gently put 
down, and gently raised. 



r~ 



QL m *~i „ 

JEAa.-! 



17 

CHAP. V. 

OF SHARPS, FLATS, &c. 



What is an Interval? 

An Interval is the difference or distance be- 
tween two sounds. 

What is the smallest Interval? 

A Semitone, or half a Tone. Each Key of 
the Piano Forte is a Semitone from that which 
is next to it, whether it be a White Key or a 
Black one. 



What is a Sharp ? 



ft 



A Sharp placed before any Note, raises it one 
Semitone, or to the next Key on the right hand. 



►-© 



XT' 

What is a Flat ? 



E|=||=^_ 



A Flat placed before any Note, lowers it o# e 
Semitone, or to the next Key on the left hand. 



■:^EI=izp5E5fE: 



18 CHAP. V. SHARPS, FLATS, &C. 

Witt! is a Natural ? ^ 

A Natural brings a Note that has been raised 
by a Sharp, or lowered by a Flat, to its formej 
place again: 



f L ft* fc p I bp 3»— 

consequently, a Natural sometimes raises and 
sometimes lowers a Note. 



Why are Sharps or Flats placed at the beginning of a. 
piece of Music? 

Any Sharps or Flats placed at the beginning, 
affect all Notes of the corresponding names, 
throughout the piece. For example, a Sharp 

on the fifth Line, Eg"— ~ZE SJ g n ^ es ^ ia ^ a ^ 
the F's are to be played sharp ; and Flats upon 
the third Line and fourth Space, 7£~j>~-- — 
signify that all the B's and E's are to be flat. 

WTiat are Accidental Snaps, Flats, or Naturals? 

Accidentals are those which are not marked 
at the beginning of the piece. 



CHAP. V. — SHARPS, FLATS, &C. 19 

How long does the influence of an Accidental Ust? 

An Accidental affects all Notes ol the same 
name in the Bar. For Example, 

signifies that all the C's are to be sharp, though 
only the first is marked. 



zs: 



ZZZfeZiJI!^— 



The Flat in this Example, although placed, to 
B on the third Line, affects the B above the 
first Ledger Line. 

Do Accidentals ever affect Notes in the following Bar? 

Yes : if the last Note of one Bar, which has 
been made sharp, begins the next, it is to con- 
tinue sharp. 



z4€^£z±z£^z: 






#»*- 






The same is to be observed of Flats and Naturals, 



20 



CHAP. VI. 

OF COMMON CHARACTERS USED IN 
MUSIC. 



What is the use of Double Bars ? 




Double Bars are placed in the middle, or at 
the end of a piece of Music, to shew that a part, 
or the whole is finished. 

What is the use of Dots at a Bar, or at a Double bar? 



• I - iJlti-I— 



They signify, that that part of the Music 
which is on the same side as the Dots, is to be 
repeated. For example,;^— ITIXCZZ™ 

»Tr " — - these 



Dots being on the left-hand side of the Double 
Bar, signify that the Performer is to repeat the 

former piece ; but these Dots 

being on the right-hand side, signify that the 
Performer, after having played to the next Dote, 
is to return to this place. * 




CHAP. VI. COMMOK CHARACTERS, &C. 21 

ft 
TYhat is the use of a Sisni ? 

The second time it occurs in a piece of Music, 
it is generally accompanied with the words 
" Dal Segno" which signify " From the Sig7i;- y 
consequently, the Performer is to return to the 

first mark. 

• ■ 

What is the meaning of Da Capo? — generally abbre- 
viated D. C. 

From the be°:innin2r. 

What is the meaning of Da Capo at Segno ? 

From the beginning at the Sign. 

Why are the Figures 1 and 2> sometimes placed at the 
Double Bar, in the middle of a Movement r 






The Dots at the Double Bar shew that the 
piece is to be repeated ; and the Figures denote 
that the Performer, in playing it through the 
second : time, is to omit the Bar marked 1, and 
play that which is marked 2, instead. 



22 CHAP. VI. — COMMON CHARACTERS 

What is the use of a Pause ? <7\ 

A Pause placed over a Note, signifies that the 
finger is to be held down, and the Performer is 
to pause as long as he thinks proper. 



:=Q=z. 



A Pause over a Rest has the same meaning 
excepting that the fingers are to be raised. 



/7\ 



W:3 



.[ — 



Why is a Pause sometimes placed over a Double Bar? 



ilil 



A Pause, (or the words II Fine,) placed at a 
Double Bar, shews that the piece is to end at 
that place, after the Da Capo. 



What is the meaning of the word Bis ? 



It is generally accompanied with Dots at the 
Bars, and placed under a Slur; it signifies, that 



USED IN MUSIC. 23 

the passage over which it is placed, is to be 
played twice over. 




Bis. 



- - — ijl: E m z 



H ^j^ — 



•P 



rnr : 



— — 



What is the use of a Direct? V^ — 



It is placed at the end of a Staff, or at the 
bottom of a page, to indicate the name of the 
following Note. 

What is the meaning of Volti Subito? generally marked 
V & 

Volti, means turn over; Subito, quickly. 

What is the meaning of Ottava Alta? generally marked 
8ra. 

It signifies, that the Music over which it is 
placed, is to be played an Octave higher, as far 
as the marks of continuation extend. 

W r hat is the meaning of Loco ? 

It signifies, that the Music is to be played as 
it is written; that is to say, no longer an Octave 
higher. 



24 CHAP. VI. — COMMON CHARACTERS, &C. 

The Pupil should now be exercised in naming the Keys 
of the Piano Forte, without looking at the Instrument, 
remarking that the Black Keys are occasionally called 
Sharps, and occasionally Flats. (See Appendix, Exercise 
I.) The White Keys also, commonly called E, F, and 
B, C, frequently change their names, and are used as Flats 
or Sharps to their neighboring- Ke}-s. The others too, 
are occasionally called Double Sharps and Double Flat?, 
which are explained at the beginning of Chap. XI. (See 
also Appendix, Exercise II.) 

Name a Chromatic Semitone* above A, A J£ fete. Sec. 

A Chromatic Semitone above A is A jg, a Chro- 
matic Semitone above A j£ is A x , &c. &c. 

Name a Diatonic Semitone above A, B, &c. (See Appen- 
dix, Exercise XIII, page 13.) 

Name a Diatonic Semitone below A, B, Stc. (See Appen- 
dix, Exercise XIII. page 13.) 



# For an explanation of the difference between a Chro- 
matic and a Diatonic Semitone, see page 55. 



25 



CHAP. VII. 

OF GRACES, AND COMMON MARKS OF 
EXPRESSION. 



What is an Appoggiatura? 

It is a small Note prefixed to a large one. 
from which it generally takes half its time. For 
example, an Appoggiatura before a Minim, 




=fc£? 



must be played as two Crotchets, 



— j^ a -— + consequently it does not lengthen 
■ 1 1 ' — * 
the Bar. 

When an Appoggiatura is placed before a Double Note. 
is it to be played by itself, (as it appears,) or with the lower 
Note? 

The Appoggiatura is to be played instead of 
part of the upper Note; consequently, the 
lower Note must be played with it. For ex- 

----- -d-f must be played as if 




26 CHAP. VII. — GRACES 



Are all Appoggiaturas to be made half the time of the 
Note they precede? 

No : they, as well as the other Graces used in 
Music, depend greatly on the taste and judg- 
ment of the performer ; consequently, they can 
be best explained as they occur. 

How is a Turn £s^ to be made? 

A Turn is to be made with the Note above, 
and the Note below that which is written, be- 
ginning with the highest : consequently, a Turn 
upon C, will be made with D, C, B, C. 

Should the lowest Note of a Turn be a Tone, or a Semi- 
tone below the Note written? 

In most cases it should be a Semitone. 

Supposing a turn be made upon A 3 is it immaterial 
whether it be called B, A, G .£, A, or B, A, A fc), A? 

No : three different letters must be made use 
of in a Turn; therefore the lowest must be 
called G $, and not A. b. 

Name, write or play a Turn upon A, upon B, C, D, E, 
F, G, &-c. (See Appendix, Exercise III.) 

How is a Turn made upon a Dotted Note? 

By first striking the Note itself, and making 
the Turn afterwards. 



<5S 



— +1 — 5-P -P_: a 






AND COMMON MARKS OF EXPRESSION. 



27 



What is an inverted Turn ? (f) 

An inverted Turn consists of the same Notes 
as a Turn ; but beginning with the lowest, in- 
stead of the highest Note. 

Make an inverted Turn uppn A ; B ? C, D 3 E, F, G, 8%c. 
How is a shake to be made? 

A Shake is made with the Note above, and 
the Note which is written ; beginning with the 
highest, and concluding with a Turn. For ex- 
ample. 



4r_ 



*? — 



1 



Must be played 



n 



Or thus, 



H^S^P 




•HMf* 



(^^»S= : 



The rapidity of the Shake depending on the 
ability of the Performer. 

Make a Shake upon A, B, C, D, E ; F ? G, Stc. 

What is the meaning of Piano ? 

Soft ; generally abbreviated Pia, or P. 



2S CHAP. VII. GRACES. 

What is Pianissimo ? 

Very soft; generally abbreviated PPmo. or 
PP. 

What is the meaning of Forte ? 

Loud ; generally abbreviated for. or f. 

What is Fortissimo? 

Very loud ; generally marked ffmo. or ff. 

What is the meaning of Mezzo Forte, and Mezzo 
Piano? 

Mezzo Forte signifies moderately loud, and 
Mezzo Piano moderately soft: they are gene- 
rally marked mf. and mp. 

What is the meaning of Dolce, or Dol ? 

Softly, or sweetly. 

What is the meaning of Tenuto, or Teno ? 

It signifies that the fingers are to be particu- 
larly held down during the passage to which it 
is applied. 

What is Forzando, or Sforzato ? 

They each signify that one Note is to be 
played strong : they are abbreviated fz. and sf. 

What is Rinforzando ? 

It signifies that several Notes are to be played 
strong: it is generally marked rinf. or rf. 



AND COMMON MARKS OF EXPRESSION. 29 

What is the meaning of Crescendo, or Cres . ? 

Begin softly, and gradually increase the sound. 
The following mark 




is also occasionally used, to signify that the 
Performer is to play Piano where it is small, 
and Forte where it is large. If a small mark 
of this sort ^^ _ is applied to one Note, it 
has the same effect as fz. 

What is the meaning of Diminuendo, or Decrescendo ? 

Begin loud, and gradually diminish the sound. 
They are generally marked dim?. decres°. or 




What is the meaning of Calando, or Cal° ? 

Gradually softer and slower. 

What is the meaning of Perdendosi ? 

It has the same meaning as Calando. 

What is the meaning of a Tempo, or Tempo Primo ? 

After having slackened the Time at Calando, 
it signifies that the original Time is to be re- 
sumed. 



30 CHAP. VII. — GRACES, &C. 

What is the meaning of ad libitum, or ad lib. ? 

It signifies " at pleasure ;" that is to say, the 
Performer may play the passage as it is written, 
or introduce any Cadence he thinks proper. 

When two notes are marked with a slur, thus, 




in what manner are they to be played ? 



As if marked thus, -gfc : j*--i* -i tna ^ is to 



say, the first is to be pressed and held down, 
the second played softly, and the finger raised 
immediately. 

What is meant by a curved or waved Line placed before 
a Chord ? 



( 



It signifies that the Notes are not to be played 
quite together, but successively from the lowest 
upwards. Chords played in this manner are 
called spread, 






CHAP. VIII. 



OF INTERVALS. 



W$< 



What is an Interval ? 



An Interval is the difference or distance be- 
tween two sounds. It must be remembered, 
that all Intervals are called according to the de- 
grees of the Staff, or according to the num- 
bers of letters they are distant from each 



other. For instance, :&ZI?Z:zzi ' IS a Second; 



-o 



;z_ZZZZlj a Sharp Second : but if the 



;£e3e?e 



same Keys are struck, and called \ 



the interval is then calleed a Third. 

Are Intervals to be reckoned upwards or downwards ? 

Always upwards from the Note named, unless 

the contrary be expressed. 

4* 



32 CHAP. VIII. — INTERVALS. 

What is a Tone ? 

It consists of two Semitones. The Interval 
between F and F #, is one Semitone ; and be- 
tween F # and G, is another. For, example, 

1 2 



W=^% 




consequently, the Interval between F and G is 
a whole Tone.* 

What is a Minor, or lesser Third ? 

A Minor third (sometimes improperly called 
a Flat Third) is three Semitones from the Note 
named. For example, the Minor Third of A, 
must be reckoned thus: from A to A # onz 
Semitone, to B two, to C three. 

12 3 




* The Pupil should be required to prove all Interrals : 
by inserting (or counting) the Semitones in this manner. 



CHAP. VIII. — INTERVALS. 



33 



How many Semitones is a Major, or Greater Third 
from the Note named ? 

Four: (this Interval is sometimes improperly 
called a Sharp Third,) 

1 2 3 4 




XT 



As the Semitone above C, may be called either C $ or 
D 5; is it immaterial in reckoning the Major Third of 
A, whether you say C ^f or D b ? 

No : the Major Third of A, must be called 
C #. For example, A, B, C, is a Third, and 

A, B, C, D, is a Fourth. 

Name, write, or play Minor and Major Thirds* to A 

B, C, D, E, F, Q j to A #, B # } C #, D# ? E# ? F # ? ' 
G #. to A b, B, b, C b, D b, E b, F b, G b- (See 
Appendix, part of Exercise IV.) 



*In reckoning Thirds, or any other Intervals, the Pupil 
is recommended first to fix upon the proper letter, and 
afterwards ascertain (by counting- the Semitones) whether 
the letter fixed upon, is to be Natural, Sharp, Double 
Sharp, Flat, or Double Flat. For example, after having 
decided that the Third of A must be C, it remains to be 
proved which of the five C's (viz. Cfcj C^Cx^Cbor 

C bb ) * s tne one required. That C, which is three 
Semitones from A is the Minor Third, and that C, which 
is four Semitones from A is the Major Third. 



34 



CHAP. VIII. INTERVALS. 



How man}- Semitones is a perfect Fifth from the Note 
named ? 

Seven: 



1 2 3 4 5 7 




w=*% 



but the easiest way is to remember, that every 
Note, excepting one, has a Fifth either Sharp, 
Flat, or Natural, like itself. For example, the 
Fifth of C is G, the Fifth of C tf is G #, the 
Fifth of C bisGb. 



What Xote has a Fifth unlike itself? 

B; the Fifth of which must be raised a Semi- 
tone to make it perfect. For example, the Fifth 
of B is F #, the Fifth of B # is F x, the Fifth 
ofB bisF. 

Name, or write Fifths to all the Xotes, beginning with F, 
and proce tiii a Fifth higher* 

F, C. G D, A, E, B,F #, C #, G#, D #, 

A*,E t,BM+ 1 Cx,te 



CHAP. VIII. — INTER VALS* 35 

Name Fifths to Flats now, commencing with F b« 

F b,C b,G b,Db,A b,Eb,B b, F tr, &c. 

By way of Exercise, now name the Fifths below, and 
observe that in reckoning downwards, every note has a 
Fifth like itself, excepting F, the Fifth below which 
must be lowered a Semitone. For example, the Fifth 
below F is B b, the Fifth below F b? ^ B b 6, the Fifth, 
below F # is B. 

B 5 E, A, D, G, C, F 5 B b, E b, A b, D b> 

G b, C b, F b,B bb, &c. 



Name the Fifths below to the Sharps, commencing 
with B # 

B#,E#,A#,D#,G#,C#,FMb,&c. 

Name again the two Letters which have Fifths, not 
Sharp, Flat, or Natural, like themselves. 

B, in reckoning Fifths upwards; and F, in 
reckoning Fifths downwards. 



What is the Leading Note ? 

The leading Note is the Sharp Seventh of the 
Scale: it is eleven Semitones from the Note 



36 CHAP. VIII. — INTERVALS. 

named ; but the easiest way is to reckon it one 
Semitone below the Octave. 

123456789 10 11 




As you say Sharp Seventh, is the leading -Vote always * 
Sharp. 

No. For example, the Leading Note of F, 
is E b ; the Leading Note of A, is G # ; and the 
Leading Note of C b>isB b,-.* 

As the Leading Note is one Semitone below the Oo- 
tave, is it immaterial whether the Leading Note of A, be 
C aUed G^orAb? 

No : for although A b is a Semitone below the 
Octave, it is the eighth letter or Degree, and the 
Leading Note must be the seventh. 

*In naming Intervals in general, it is sufficient to name 
the letter, if a Natural be intended. Thus it is sufficient 
to say that the Minor Third of A is C, and not say C fcj 3 but 
in naming or writing Leading Notes, it should be always 
expressed 3 thus the Leading Note of B 5 is A fcjj the 
Leading Note of E (3 is D fcj, be. This is recommended 
that the Pupil may hereafter more readily find the Lead- 
ing Notes of the Minor Keys, which are already marked 
with an Accidental Sharp, Flat, or Natural. 



CHAP. Till. — INTERVALS. 37 

Name or write the Leading Note of A 5 of B, C, D, E, F, 
OjofA^B^C^D^E^F^ G# ; Ab,Bb, 

C b 5 D b ? E b? F b? G b- ( See Appendix, part of Exer- 
eiselV.) 

Name or write Minor Thirds, Major Thirds, Fifths, and 
Leading Notes, to A, B, C, D, E, F, &y A # B # C # 

Djf J E#,F#,G#;Ab,Bb,Cb,Db,Eb ) F,b 
G 5- (See Appendix Exercise IT.) 

Name or write Minor Thirds, Major Thirds, Fifths, and 
Leading Notes to A b, B # ? C, Db,E,^F,Gb,j A # 

BXb,D^E,Fb,G#;A,Bb,CjD,Eb,F^a 



38 

CHAP. IX. 

OF THE SIGNATURE. 



How do you determine what is the Tonic, or Key Note of 
a piece of Music? 

Principally by the Signature, or number of 
Sharps or Flats at the beginning. 

What method have you of discovering the Tonic? 

Every Tonic, or Key Note, is a fifth higher 
for every additional Sharp, and a fifth lower for 
every additional Flat, commencing always w r ith 
C, which Key has neither Flat nor Sharp. 

Name the order of Keys with Sharps. 

C has no Sharp, G has one, D has two, A has 
three, E has four, B has five, F # has six, and 
C # has seven. 

Name the order of Keys with Flats. 

C has no Flat, F has one, B b has two, E b 

has three, A b has four, D^b has five, G b has 
six, and C b has seven. 

What Key has two (or more) Sharps (or Flats) ? &.c. 
What is the Signature, (or number of Sharps or Flats) of tta 
Key A, D b, F #? be. be, 



CHAP. IX. — THE SIGNATURE. 39 

How many Keys have the same Signature t 

There are two of each. For example, every 
Tonic, or Key Note, has its relative Minor.* 

How is the Relative Minor of any Key to be found ? 

The Relative Minor of every Key is a Minor 
Third below. For example, the relative Mi- 
nor of C, is A Minor; the Relative Minor of 
B b, is G Minor. 

Name the Relative Minor of C, of G, D, A, K, &} 
F#, C#;ofC 3 ]? B b ? E b?A b;D b ? G b, and C b- 
(See Appendix, part of Exercise Y.) 

In what manner do you decide whether a piece is in the 
Key which is indicated by the Signature, or in its Re- 
lative Minor ? 

By looking for the Leading Note of the Minor 
Key alluded to ; as the Leading Note of every 
Minor Key is marked with an Accidental Sharp 
or Natural. For example. 

SEiF 



■4- 




z±.zz£*z:i 



Judging from the signature, this may be either 

*The difference between Major and Minor Keys will 
be more fully explained hereafter : the present is only 
given as the readiest way of enabling a Pupil to ascertain 
what Key any piece of Musie is in. 

5 



40 CHAP. IX. — THE SIGNATURE. 

in C, or A Minor; but as the first G is Sharp, 
(which is the Leading* Note of A,) the piece ia 
in the Key of A Minor. 

This piece, having one Sharp at the Signature, 
may be either in G, or E Minor; but as the 
first D is not Sharp, it cannot be in E Minor ; 
consequently, it is in the Key of G. 

Is this an invariable Rale for ascertaining what Key a 
piece of Music is in ? 

No: exceptions to it (though very seldom^ 
maybe met with; but these can only be under- 
stood by those who study Harmony. 

Name or write the order of Keys with Sharps and Flats ; 
also the Relative Minor, and the Leading Note of the 
Relative Minor, to each Key. (See Appendix, Exer- 
cise y.) 

As the Relative Minor of any Key is a Minor Third 
below, of course, the Relative Major of any Minor Key is a 
Minor Third above } name, therefore, the Relative Major of 
A Minor, 6tc. Sec. (See Appendix, Exercise V.) 



41 



CHAP. X. 

OF THE FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 



What is a Tetrachord ? 

A Tetrachord is composed of four Sounds, 
placed at the Intervals of tiro Tones and one 
Semitone; that is to say, the Interval between 
the first and second Sound must be a Tone; be- 
tween the second and third, a Tone; and be- 
tween the third and fourth, a Semitone, 



Make Tetrachords, commencing with F ; A $ ; B b : F 5- 

Mark the Semitones with a Slur. (See Appendix, Exercise 
VI.) 

Make descending Tetrachords, commencing with A, 
B 5 : F b : B bb : and observe that the interval of the 
Semitone must still be between the two highest Sounds of the 
Tetrachord. (See Appendix. Exercise VII.) 



42 CHAP. X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 

What is the Diatonic Scale ? 

The Diatonic Scale must consist of the seven 
Letters or Degrees, and the Octave to the first, 
in regular succession, proceeding by Tones and 
Semitones. 

How do you form the Diatonic Scale ? 

By making two Tetrachords, leaving the In- 
terval of one Tone between them, called the 
Tone of Disjunction. 

Form the Scale of C. Mark the Semitones with, a Slur,, 
and separate the Tetrachords, at the tone of Disjunction, 
by a Bar. 



Lower Tetrachord. Upper Tetraehord. 



;:z=-zg=o: 
z— iza:T:©=_z-— : 



I 



-e- 
It is to be remarked, that the Semitones are 

between the Third and Fourth, and between the 

Seventh and Eighth of the Scale. In all Major 

Keys, the ascending and descending Scales are 

composed of the same Notes. 

Name every Interval of the foregoing Scale. 

C, is the Tonic, or Key Note; D, the second; 
E, the third; F, the fourth, &c. &c* 

* The Pupil should be required to name the Intervals of 
every Scale that is formed. 






CHAP. X. — FORMATION OP THE SCALE. 43 

Make the Scale of E # 3 the Scale of G t). (See Ap- 
pendix, Exercise VIII.) 

Make the descending Scale of A (3 ; F ^f. (See Appendix, 
Exercise IX.) 

In what manner are Scales to be formed, so as to shew 
their connexion with each other, and to shew the order of the 
Seven Sharps ? 

Commence with the Scale of C, and take the 
upper Tetrachord of one Scale for the lower Te- 
trachord of the next. Observe, that every Scale 
will be a Fifth higher than the preceding, and 
will have an additional Sharp. 



Scale of Gr.* 



:zzzr^::i:§:a:?£:i:z:z z^z^rj&c. 






O" 



- _. <^_Q.. J..— 

Scale of C. 
' Scale of D. 



Make Scales progressively 5 mark the 'first and each suc- 
ceeding Sharp upon a separate Staff, until you have found the 
order of the seven Sharps, viz. 



*T* 



— # 



=*=**&= 



(See Appendix, Exercise X.) 



* In order to avoid the inconvenience of the Ledger 
Lines, it will be necessary, in commencing the succeeding 
Scales, to copy the Notes of the alternate Tetrachords an 
Octave lower. 

5* 



41 CHAP. X. FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 

After having found the order of Sharps regularly, 
making Scales, the Pupil will do well to remember, that 
F is the first, and that every- succeeding Sharp is a Fifth 
higher. 

In what manner are Seales to be formed, so as to shew 
the order of the Flats ? 

Exactly tlie reverse of the former; that is to 
say, the lower Tetrachord of one Scale must be 
taken for tl*e upper Tetrachord of the next. For 
example, the lower Tetrachord of C, is the up- 
per one of F. 



Scale of C. Scale of 15 5 



E:EEEEE:iEEEa:!:"!:EEEd & 



±:®:o:s:z::-:v- 

Scale of F.* 



Make Scales progressively ; mark the first and each 
succeeding Flat upon a separate Staff, until you have 
found the order of the seven Flats, viz. 

rKEEEE 

(See Appendix. Exercise XI.) 

* In order to avoid the inconvenience of the Ledger 
Lines, it will be necessary, in commencing the succeeding 
Scales, to copy the Notes of the alternate Tetraclkords an 
< )ctave higher. 



CHAP X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 45 

After having found the order of Flat? regularly, by 
forming the Scales, the Pupil will do well to remember, 
that B is the first Flat, and that every succeeding Flat is 
a Fifth lower. 

What is meant by the Dominant and the Subdominant. 

The Dominant signifies the Fifth above, and 
the Subdominant the fifth below. Every Scale 
is intimately connected with the Scales of its. 
Dominant and Subdominant. 

Form the Scale of with its Dominant and Sub- 
dominant. 

What is the difference between a Major Key and a 
Minor Key. 

A Major Key signifies, that the Third of the 
Scale is a Major Third from the Tonic; and a 
Minor Key signifies, that the Third is a Minor 
Third from the Tonic. 

Key of C Major, or Key of C, with a Major Third. 

3d. 
Key of A Minor, or Key of A, with a Minor Third. 



Z" Z^IZD 



©• 






— ,- n n tfe- * 2 — 



3d. 



46 CHAP. X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 

What is the Minor Scale ? 

The Minor Scale consists of the same number 
of Tones and Semitones of the Major, (viz. five 
whole Tones and two Semitones,) but differently 
disposed ; the ascending also, differs from the 
descending Scale. For example, A is the Rela- 
tive Minor of C, and has neither Flat nor Sharp 
at the Signature. 



l o J 



Sllilii 



:— z?:?=g: 



I 



The Semitones, it is to be observed, are not in 
the same situations as in the Major Scale. 

How is the Minor Scale to be formed ? 

The easiest way is to form it with the sa-.nc 
Flats or Sharps as its Relative Major, remem- 
bering-, that the Sixth and Seventh of the 
Ascending Scale must each be raised a Semi- 
tone by Accidental Sharps or Naturals. For 
example, D is the Relative Minor of F; conse- 
quently, must have B b at the Signature. The 



CHAP. X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 47 

Sixth and Seventh, as has been before remarked, 
are raised by Accidentals, in the Ascending 
Scale. 



-b 



=i:sz?5z?: 



:qz3 



■cr s "? — :I: : : 



=g- q "o» 



±:©zazsz~ 




Why are the Sixth and Seventh Notes of the Ascending 
Miliar Scale raised by Accidentals ? 

The Seventh is raised, because even' Ascend- 
ing Scale must have a Leading Note ; and the 
Sixth is also raised, that the Interval between 
the Sixth and Seventh may not be greater than 
a Tone ; for the Diatonic Scale must consist of 
Tones and Semitones. 



Repeal the Method of making a Minor Scale ? 

First ascertain what is its Relative Major; 
secondly, write the Signature ; thirdly, write the 
Scale ascending and descending ; fourthly, raise 
the Sixth and Seventh of the ascending Scale, 
each one Semitone, 



48 CHAP. X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 

Write the Scale of D Minor, G Minor, F fi Minor, 

B Minor, C Minor, Sec. &»c. (See Appendix, part of 
Exercise XII.) 

Write the Scale of the Relative Minor of D,. E, D b- 
C i± Swc. Sec. (See Appendix, part of Exercise XII.) 

Write the Scales of the Relatiec Minors to C, G, D, 
A, E, B, F #, C # C, F, B b, F b, A t>> D b, G b- 

C b? (See Appendix, Exercise Xri.) 

What is the Chromatic Scale ? 

The Chromatic Scale consists of Semitones 
only. 



«y 






■i-^bt- rbr jn 

Is it immaterial, in writing the Chromatic Scale, whether 
you write A b or G # and A # or B b ■ 

No : the Signature must be attended to. For 
example, with three Flats, you must not write 

.- bz= 



SE3iEHSiEi^E!!E^r: & - 



CHAP. X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 49 

but every Note should have its proper situation 
on the Staff, according to the Signature : thus, 



Jr^::bzsz5*z?zf tztz^zzzzz &c, 

This renders fewer Accidentals necessary. 

By way of exercise, write the same passage as above, with 
four Sharps at the Signature. 

»_£ 



In order to draw the attention to the subject o£ finger- 
ing, it is now recommended that the Pupil should write 
and finger all the Scales, commencing with the scale of C, 
and going on progressively as far as the scale of C £ 

and the scale of C (3, ascending and descending two oc- 
taves both for the right hand and the left. These should 
be first written upon a slate, fingered, and when corrected 
by the master, copied into a book for daily practice . The 
Major Scales should be written on one side of the book, 
and their relative Minors on the opposite page. The pro- 
per Sharps or Flats belonging to each Scale, should b<* 
placed as the signature at the beginning, and not as they 
occur in the Scale, excepting of course the sixth and seventh 
of the Minor Scales, which require raising by accidentals 
in the ascending, and contradicting (on account of being 
written without Bars) in the descending Scale. (See Ap- 
pendix, pages 14 and 15.) 

In fingering the Scales, the following remarks may be found 
useful. 

The fingering is only to be marked upon the first note 



50 CHAP. X. — FORMATION OF THE SCALE. 

of the Scale, and where the thumb is to be passed under the 
fingers, or the fingers over the thumb. 

In the ascending Scale of .two octaves for the right hand 
— commence with the thumb — pass the thumb under the 
second finger — next under the third finger, and again under 
the second, which will prepare sufficient lingers to" ascend to 
the top of the Scale. 

In descending, commence with the fourth finger — pass the 
second finger over thumb — next pass the third finger over, and 
lastly the second finger over. 

When the Scale commences with a Black Key, commence 
with the first finger, and follow the foregoing rule as closely 
as the situation of the Black Keys will admit of; observing 
that neither the thumb nor the fourth finger must be placed 
upon a Black Key in fingering a Scale. 

In the ascending Scale of two octaves for the left hand, 
commence with the fourth finger — pass the second finger over 
the thumb — next pass the third finger, and lastly the second 
finger. 

In descending commence with the thumb — pass the thumb 
under the second finger, next under the third finger, and lastly 
under the second finger. 

The situation of the Black Keys will render it necessary to 
commence in some Scales with the third, second, or first 
finger, instead of the fourth, but the foregoing rule is to be 
followed as closely as circumstances will admit of. (See Ap- 
pendix, pages 14 and 15.) 

No Scale should he practised till it has been inspected by the 
master. 

Nothing can be more generally useful than the daily practice 
of the Scales, at the same time the greatest attention is re*- 
quisite on the part of the Pupil to the position and steadiness 
of the hand, as well as to the clearness and connexion of the 
Notes. (See Chap. IV.) 






51 



CHAP. XL 



OF VARIOUS CHARACTERS USED IN MUSIC, 



What is a Double Sharp ? >/ 

A Double Sharp raises a Note two Semitones, 



— x -«J — 



XT' 



What is a Double Flat ? ft} 

A Double Flat lowers a Note two Semitones, 



— to - p 

How k a Single Sharp or Flat replaced after a Double one: 

By means of a Natural and Sharp, or a Natu- 
ral and Flat. 



:zz£z:zzEz3zzzt~=t=H 



52 CHAP. XI. VARIOUS CHARACTERS 

A5 a Dot after a Xcte ma; If as long again, "what is 

the use of a second Dot? 

The second Dot is equal to half the first; con- 
sequently, a Crotchet with two Dots, is equal to 
a Crotchet, Quaver, and Semiquaver. 



gzzzj*::^z:z:j is eq^ gzzz^zgz^zj 
_ i ^. | 0— ^ 

As Se?m signifies half, and Breve short, why is the lon r 
Note called a Semibreve? 

A Semibreve is the longest in present use ; but 
there were two others formerly called a 

Long, 3™™EE an( ^ a Breve, jT I — 

What proportion does a Semibreve bear to them? 

A Long is equal to two Breves, or four Semi- 
breves; consequently, a Semibreve is equal to 
half a Breve, or a quarter of a Long. 

Is a Demisemiquaver the shortest Note? 

No: there is one called a half Demisemi* 

_£_ 

quaver, made thus ZZZ^Z_ and its Rest thus, 
— %— — 



Sixty-four of these are equal to one Semibreve. 



CSEO IN MUSIC. 



53 



in what manner is a whole Bar Rest marked? 

Iii the same manner as a Semibreve Rest, be 
the value of the Bar what it may. 



EE5 






XT 



In what manner are Rests for more man one djl » -arkcd? 

A Rest for two Bars is made from one line to 
the next - ■< ' , . ; for four Bars, from one line 



to the next but one —-J—- but a Figure, 

expressive of the number of Bars, is frequently 
6 



placed over — -{-"^z" 5 anc * w ^en the number is 



very great, Figures only are used, zz~2iS:ZZ 

In what manner do you count several Bars' Rest? 

By naming the number, instead of the word 
One, on the first of each Bar. For example, 

5 

^z$zi=z=z=: 

These five Bars' Rests should be counted 

1> 2, 3, j % 2, 3, ] 3 ? 2 3, | % 2, 3, | 5 J 2, 3, 

instead of always one, two, three. 



54 CHAP. XI. — VARIOUS CHARACTERS 

What is Melody? 

A Melody is a succession of Sounds. 

What is Harmony? 

A combination of Sounds. 

Are there any mo^e Clefs than the Treble *M the Imfle? 

Yes : the C Clef, j| This Clef is occasion- 

ally placed upon either of the four lowest lines of 
the Staff, and gives the name of C to all Notes 
on the same line as itself; the other Notes are, of 
course, named by degrees from it: its situation 
on the Piano-Forte is the middle C. 

When this Clef is placed upon the first line, 



w 



it is called the Soprano Clef; when 



upon the second line, 



iii= 



the Mezzo 



z:§:z 
" c """" 



Soprano Clef; when upon the third line 

the Alto, or Yiola Clef; and when upon the 
fourth line, §J=|:= the Tenor Clef. 



USED IN MUSIC. OO 

Name all tlie Degrees of the Staff, according to these Clefs' 

Do the Treble and Base Clefs ever change their situations 
on the Staff? 

Yes, in rery old Music : but all Notes on the 
line with the Treble Clef, are called G, and all 
Notes on the line with the Base Clef, are called 
F. 

Give Examples according to the following Clefs: 



as-e- 



Q. 

G 



What is the difference between a Chromatic and a Diatonic 
Semitone. 

A Chromatic Semitone remains on the Same 
degree of the Staff, and is called by the same 



letter, as 2C— ~— . - — - whereas a Diatonic 

2$z_z±i _z 

Semitone changes its decree and name, thus: 



ZiZ&5Z 



What is tlie meaning of Enharmonic? 

The Enharmonic Diesis, or Quarter Tone, is 
the difference between two following Notes, one 



56 CHAP. XI. — VARIOUS CHARACTERS, &C. 

of which is raised, and the other lowered a 
Chromatic Semitone. This Interval cannot be 
expressed on the Piano-Forte, from its construc- 
tion; but the same Keys must be struck for the 
Sharp of the lowest Note, and the Flat of the 
highest. 




57 



CHAP. XII. 

OF THE COMMON TERMS RELATING TO 
TIME, 8cc. 



Explain some of the words which are prefixed to pieces of 
Music, to express the Time and Manner they are to be per- 
formed in. 

They are very indefinite; but the following 
are the most common : 

GRAVE In the slowest time. 

ADAGIO Very slow. 

LARGO Slow. 

LARGHETTO Rather less slow than Largo. 

MODERATO In moderate time. 

CANTABILE In a singing and graceful style. 

ANDANTE In a marked and distinct manner, 

ANDANTINO In a flowing style. 

PASTORALE In a pastoral style. 

MAESTOSO Majestically. 

ALLEGRO Quick. 

ALLEGRETTO.... Not so quick as Allegro, 

VIVACE Lively. 

PRESTO Very quick. 

PRESTISSIMO As quick as possible. 



58 CHAP. XII. — COMMON TERMS, &C. 

In conclusion, the Author begs to observe, he 
docs not wish it to be understood, that he con- 
ceives the foregoing pages to contain all that it is 
necessary a Pupil should know; many things, no 
doubt, have been inadvertently, and others have 
been intentionally omitted, as it is his opinion 5 
that persons frequently fail entirely of attaining 
their object, by attempting to teach too much : 
he only hopes that those Pupils who thoroughly 
understand what he has endeavoured to commu- 
nicate in this Book, will not be considered the 
most deficient among the numerous Students of 
the Piano-Forte, 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX, 



EXERCISE I. 
NAME the Keys of the Piano-Forte. 

C, Cf or Db, D, D£ or Eb, F, E, F#or Gb, 
G, G# or~Ab, A, A# or~Bb, B, C. 

EXERCISE II. 

Is F# (or Bb, C-f , fee fee.) a Black Key, or 
a White one ? 

X. B . In the following Example, the Black Xotes are used 
to express the Black Keys, and the White .Notes the Wl 
Keys) 

: =^~±EEE = tii:===^~E5biE 

; — **■•--— x n -tee- -Ib^ 



- x c:2---g: x »;-_tbc:zzz= 



I! 



APPENDIX. . 3 



EXERCISE III. 

TURNS. 

A Turn upon A must be made with B, A, Grf, A 

B, — C*, B, A#, B. 

C„ D, C, B, C. 

D. — E, D, CT, D. 

E, F, E, D#, E. 

F, G, F, E, F. 

G, r. A,G, F*r, G. 

A#, B, A#, Gx, A*. 

Bb, C, Bb, A, Bb. 

C#, _ D, C#, W, 0'. 

D#, E, D#, Cx.,D» 

Eb, F, Eb, D, Eb. 

Fb, : — G,Fb, Eb,Fb, 

Gb, A, Gb, F, Gb. 

&c. &c. 



* The Signature (viz. the Sharps or Flats at £he beginning 
of the piece of Music) will determine whether the upper Note 
of the Turn is to be Sharp, Flat or Natural 3 therefore in the 
present Exercise., the letter only of the upper Note need be 
named. 



APPENDIX. 



CO 

Q 



m I 

■I 101 
i \Xe 




MM 

01 I 
3V1 I I 

» U i 

] Ml 

i I 

-Pi I I 
111! 

rni 

101 I 

14* i i 
MM 



i I I 

i a 

I AT 
l_ 
II 
©I 
I lipri 
ill! 



MM 

1 1 a 

1 I *V 

I 11 i 



1114 

I I l^r 







1 1 1 

3*1 
1 1 1 
' I Y 
Ol 
A3? 
I I 



a 



1 1 
a 

X 



1 1 
IO 

u 



1 1 
1 1 

I i 

f i 



oi i 



D 



1 I 

a 

I I 



I I 

10 

1 1 



x 

It 

1 I 



I 

D 

x 



I \x 

I X 
J.I 



oi i 
1 1 

Ml 

HI 



oi 



! I 

a 

1 1 



1 1 
16 
1 1 



I JO 



CD 



I I I 

i a 

1 1 1 

M 1 

i i i 

10 
i i i 

I I 1 



1 1 l 



10 



1 1 1 

01 I 

1 1 1 

Tr'j 
a I 

.OI I 

J LL 
1 1 i 

Icbi 

! I I 



I I I 
i i i 

i a 

IN 



I M 
I 10 

( I4> 
1 1 1 



*k 




f~) 




»—« 




& 




Cj 




^ 




C£ 




^ 


n 


«; 


« 








QJ 




>"< 




0) 






o 










P 




c 




*- 


Uh 


T5 




© 




J= 




O 












o 




o 


|3 


QJ 




-O 




C 




+* 




K 


P 


ct 




« 








c 




> 




"r-t 


o 


- 



i t I 

1 1 1 



1 1 



I 10 

1 I ' 



mb #m vm wm> 



"v~ 









c ^ 
p 5 
£ -a 



« 






APPENDIX. 



Q 

W 

O 



©I 

JfrJ 

I I 



i I 

P 
401 



MM 
101 I 
IJJTI I 

mi 



J 1 1 1 

1 O I 

I lit I 
1,1,1 1 

UN 

I 10" 

lit) 



1 1 



1 1 
nt 



ii i 



C/2 






I 

© 
I |J|r 
I I 



Mil 
01 I I 

X ii 



I I I 
P 1 
1 I I 



Til 

ION 
ix i 



I I I I 
101 I 
I4>l I 
I I I I 



I I I I 
I O I 

143 I 
(III 



(III 
I 101 
I UP/ 

1 1 1 1 



1 1 1 r 
i i a 

I I40| 

JJ I 

I ill 

I I io 

I I !4> 



I I I 

i i i 
1 1 1 

1 1 1 



a 



(Ml 
MM 



l-O 



I I II 



MM 
ION 
13*1 I 
II I I 



MM 

i a i 

!*t=l 

1 1 1 

I 101 

ffl 



CD 



I I I 

01 I 

-a>i I 

I M 



a i 

-pi i 

1 1 



1 1 

91 
1 1 



1 1 
ib' 

i i i 
M 
I 

10 
I4> 



I I 1 
i i i 



D 



I 1 



HI 

I I l<P 
I I l 



I I 1 
01 I 
3*1 I 
I 1 



I I 

a 

_ I I 

iii 
101 
ix 



<m& timmk <mfo 



u 

& 



i a 

.'4PI 



I 1 

a 

43 
I 

T 

I© 
ijg 

l-H> 

1 1 
ID 
I jo 
I t 



id) 

4> 



ON 
■ i 

I I 



n 

off 

M 

6| 
$tl 



<3 









Q 



.O 












*& 

fe 



3fc 



PS to 
rt o 

3* 



O Ti 



%£ 






b APPENDIX. 

EXERCISE V. 

The relative Minor of C is A Minor: the leading Note of A is G>£ 

G is E Minor D# 

D is B Minor A# 

! A is F# Minor E# 

E is C# Minor B# 

B is G# Minor FX 

F# is D#Minor C X 

Cjk is A# Minor GX 

C is A Minor G# 

F is D Minor . — CJ£ 

, , B b is G Minor F# 

„ Eb is C Minor B% 

A (3 is F Minor , . E-Ej- 

, Db is Bb Minor , , A^ 



.. G5 is Eb Minor D^ 

.. Cb is Ab Minor G^- 



When the pupil is thoroughly acquainted -with the 
foregoing table, the question should be reversed, thus : 

What is the relative Major of A Minor, &c. fcc? 

Or, in other words, 

Of what is A Minor, the relative? 




APPENDIX. 7 

EXERCISE VI.— Tetrachords. 

EXERCISE VII.— Descending Tetrachord. 
EXERCISE VIII.— Scales. 

EXERCISE IX.— Descending Scales. 

fee- — s 

: =:z-gz:g =:to:=iez-:z— zzjj 

E?!??SI=iEpS=EEE~E=M 

!zzzzzzz:zzz:zzz±z?z!zz#§z#azH 



s 



APPENDIX. 



iBT 
Md> 



Xfl 

w 






1*1 
i i i 

I Id 

! 10 






10 

*m 1*1 

I I I I I 

cd 1 1 a 

*! I* 

L! ! !J 

01 I I (D 



o 

PS 

« 
p 

O 



a 



I ©I 1 1 



l a . 



161 
1 1 1 



o 



-in?! 

oiIdi 

* 

I 

p 



T3 V 



V 



1 w 



mm 

a i 

*M 
i i i i i 

(Dl ! I I 
x ( [ il 

Id 1 1 1 



I CO I I 

l*l ! 



h Q r 



1 1 1 

1 • JL 

I |(D 
i i • 

I I D 

+-H 

•191! 

I ID I 

I I I I I 

I I 101 



i : 



*^ 



ill n i 



CD 

b 1 



PQ 



6 1 i a 

*( i**i| 

*i i 



* 



a 
=** 

6i 



I iCD'. 1 



1 1 
i a i 

d I I fl) I 

=* ! ffl 

1 1 1 1 i 

V i i i i i 

t i i i i 

101 

1*1 
« i i 

i a 



11(1 
I 1*1 
*Fl I 

I l# 

1*1 I 

*M 

l#l 

*l I I 



(A 

Bi- 
ll 

■♦-> TV 
al in 









■1 

a o 



'C 



a I.,® I I 



ojla I 

*i i*=i 

1 1 1 1 1 

a i i oi 

=*l 1*1 

J. • • I ' 

01 I o 

*l I** 



* 






4=H&* 



CO 

CO 



- 
CD 

TJ 

- 

o 



mil! 

N(DI I I 

l I l I l 

I G I 

I Wl 



I 101 I 



3 a 

2 * 

*» .3 
Tel} 

2 8 

J* 

« 
QQ *3 

a d 



« 3 



53 ^ 
S o 



APPENDIX. 



X> 

< 



fa 
O 

fa" 

C 



CO 

3 

X 



X> 



o 

O 



man 
■ mi 

I 101 
I UP I 



I4> 
i i i 



© 



Hi 
qi i a 

■ i i i 

Q 

CD II d 

4)1 143 
i i i i 

H-H- 



w 



( 



i I i r 

I 101 

I MP I 
11(1 

i a 

161 

1 1 1 

a i 

jpi i 

i i i 

HH-t 

Qi i a 
Jin- 

a i io 

/9l/M 
'a kcdi 

x> U>l 

I I I I 



I I I I 

i I 

I I I I 

101 I 

'-' i i 

01 I I 
i i i i 

H-t 



I mi 



a i 
(b 1 



(ml 



9 1 



n 



<-° 






L 



| 

1TT0 

I I 1401 
i i i i i 

I I 101 

14 UP I 

i i i i i 

I Dl I 

/ i i 1 1 1 

(MOM 

I IjKDI I 
If* 11 

i a i io 

I 43 M4) 

foil b 

UPI l.o 
i i i i i 

O MO, 

/Jqll4)| 
/ i i i i i / 

( 0MO y 

4>l I 40( 

t l i i i 



tn 



-/-° 
^ O 



. IOi 

I UPI 
i i i i 

i a i 

i joi i 
iiit 

lOM 

« d 1 1 

I4DI i I 

H-HH 

IOI I D 

UPM-o 
i i i i i 

a i i(q 

43 I I4J 

I I I I I 

oi i/lffli 

jC\ I I4> 



x> 

o 



Mill 
I N 43 
I 43 M 
I I I4>! 

^lll 



i—i "X5 

o o 



u 

p 



k>£ 



43 

>>l UP 

r i I 



j 3 o 

1 



I ,5 



a 



<H#fc ;| 



<H«k 



i m i 
1 1 1 1 1 

\ 101 I 
l UP I 

i i i i i 

/i a 1 1 

1 101 M 
UP II I 

4*1^ 



x> 



<Z5 

IS 

s 

O 
""3 



o o 

a to 

a n 






2 3 

- — 

| -a 

O 



10 



APPENDIX. 



EXERCISE XII. 

MINOR SCALES. 

A Minor, relative of C. 



;:£:»:z^J:z:zzzzz|z:zz:zzz|:z::z^3z|j 



E Minor, relative of G. 



:S:z::zz:ziz:^-:|»z$:: 
:zrz:*:»:zlz:z-:zz:-:: 






:«-* 



1 



B Minor, relative of D. 



:^:z:^:$t?:??:zzz:i=z.:?:i?:^:=:m 



F# Minor, relative of A. 

#-gz::zz:zr-:^:^T^:^: 



*J 



\ — ir»*- 



i 



._ , -3CJIZ 



C# Minor, relative of E. 



G# Minor, relative of B 

±?^: fi :*:z|z:zzz: 



I 



ilzir?!i 



APPENDIX. 



11 



EXERCISE XII.— Continued. 

MINOR SCALES. 
D& Minor, relative of F# 



•A- 



v_~#~z3= iitsi2_ zzz :~ ~ 

-&'&■-&— ^ ^ 

A# Minor, relative of C# 



*5£p 









A Minor, relative of C. 



sir=iil 



D Minor, relative of F. 



,^s:-»-l-5-— 



•*-•■ 



*r*~B 



G Minor, relative of Bb. 



P-iz-r*'-*--- 


p^E^-*^ 


F~ : *:^ 


zz?^i' 






J ^l& ■ — 




— 


— — 9 



I 



C Minor, relative of Eb. 



— --*-•-«-- 



-*m%>2. 



A-»- 



■*-»• 



12 



APPENDIX. 



EXERCISE XII.— Continued. 

MINOR SCALES. 
F Minor, relative of Ab. 

:zfe:Ez:=:z:=T-:5i.':Mii:*i*:$fci=~=::=:q|T 



Bb Minor, relative of Db. 



:te5==:^:?i^:- 









1 



■b 



Eb Minor, relative of Gb. 






Ab Minor, relative of Cb. 



te:r == :^T S ±-5z:=r=:=:* S i^:= 






APPENDIX 



13 



EXERCISE XIII. 



A diatonic semitone 

above A is Bb 

B is C 

C is Db 

D is Eb 

E is F 

F is Gb 

G is Ab 

A# is B 

- B# is C# 

C# is D 

- - D# is E 

E# is F# 

F# is G 

G# is A 

Ab is Bbb 

Bb isCb 

CbisDtb 

Db is Etb 

Eb isFb 

Fb is Gbb 

Gb is Abb 



A diatonic semitone 

below A is G# 

B is Atf 

C is B 

D is C# 

E is D# 

F is E 

G is F# 

A#isGX 

B#is AX 

C# is Bft 

D#isCx 

E#isDx 

....... F# is E# 

G#isFx 

Ab is G 

Bb is A 

- Cb isBb 

- - Db is C 

Eb is D 

F*> is Eb 

Gb is F 



14 



AfPEKDlX 



MAJOR SCALES AND THEIR RELATIVE MINORS. 



. ! 


m 


*#l 1 1 


1 1 1 


i i i i 

m i i 


1 1 1 
1 1 1 


*i i 


1 1 1 
1 1 1 


1 1 1 
*i i 


1 1 1 
1 1 1 




1 1 1 
1 1 


*i i i i 

w tf ii i i 

mill 

ANN 


Mill 


1 ItLLL 


1 
i 


#n 
1 1 1 


I 


< 1 1 
TI ! 


i 
t 
l 


i m 

1 1 1 


1 
1 


i IV 

1 in- 


T1 
1 

! 


i m 

Uir| 
101 


ti 


m i 


T 

i 


ro! 
1 1 

w i 



to 



.«# 


xoiiiij] 


Wi i ii 


•illl! 


X 1 1 1 1 


i 

< 


1 1 1 1 
ii ill 

Vt i i 1 

M 1 1 1 




3tl 1 l 
#1 1 1 


X 


ItLU 


. 


1011 
1 1 1 i 1 

1 1 m i 


i i ioi x 


1 1 1 m 


1 1 1 10 


tft« 




[ \\9 



X 



I I I 

lOLLJ 

I I I I I 

x W4+ 

ii 



11! 



x 01111 I 
i i i i i i 

f 1 1 1 1 

#1111 I 
i i 1 1 1 i 

nun , I 



I I MH 

ITTTTO 

I I I jjjr 

ITTTO 
i i i » i 

TTTW 



TTT01 
i i i i i 

rrm in> 



TTO 
i i i 

1 101 

i i 

calOl 


1 1 
i i 

1 1 

i > 

i 


ItLi 


i 


i i 

o 


J 

1 1 


• 
•i 


i i 
1 1 


toOl 1 1 

i i i i 

•INI 


i i 

- I 

1 1 


#1111 


i i 

i ; 



a 

» fr QI I l .l i 

r\ i i i i i i 

2, •ULLLI 

>- 

% 

B 
o 



m <m 



fLLLl 

l i i i l 

1 I i I 



• ■ » ■ 

»° m ii 



§ 1 1 i 

#_' " 



1 1 < 
1 m 
( 1 1 

T¥lw 
i i i 



TT# 

i i i 



m 



o^ 



iTITiO 

I ttr 



IT 



~0 

rm 



TT 

i i i i 
TTtI 

i I I I 

I ULLL 
tiii 

(Oil 
i i . i 



i i i 

#. ' 



x i 

# i 1 1 1 



♦M i l l, 

Hill I 



XfcLL 



•1444-! 

•UJ.I 



x m_L 



i i i 

I !#_ 



I £L 



o 
EL 

($ 

o 

o 



ii#u 

1 1 1 1 1 

rrm ix 
itit i 

rrr*i 






& 



I ITTTP 
i i i tti 

i I 
i i 

I I 

i'r 



il ITTT9 

i iTtti*' 

I 1 I t » I 



IT 

I I 

IT 



TT 
i i 



■ i t 

n# 
1 1 



n 



t* 



01 
i i 



i i i i i 
IT* i w 



iiLLi 
WW! 

tiii* 

to#l_Lll 
■ i i i 

0L111 




APPENDIX. 



15 



MAJOR SCALES. &c— Continued. 



! =^ 



1 



1*1 
1 






i 



x* 



W- 



i*. 



»I feLLl 

I 1 * 

1 



81 



i i 



r 

i i 
1 1 
l I 
II 



JTTf 

« . i i I _ 

TTTW 

• I » 

FT? 



TFf 

1* 

it 



HL 



X 



TT* 

i w 



to 



7* 



XT 



4r 



tc 



LJ 



T* 
i i - 



i i i 
i I / 
I i ! 



I IT 

' 1 i 



ITT 



HI 



. 1 1 1 
tltl 



u 



CO 

o 

° **L 

O I 



I*' 



o 
»-1 



• x 

i i 

i r 



TT* 
l-tr 



m 

irlr 



ii 



19 K> 



CO 



H 



iiii 

"II 



i / i i r 
•I I I I. 

41111! 
l llf 



X «L 



-•uir 

•Lili 



(iii 

wfcLU 



t i i 
1*1 



^ i i 
(•Li 



i i i 
I I 
Mil 

nrw 
1 1 1 

TTT* 

i i i i , . 

TTTW 
tiii - 

TTT# 

tii*i 

X « .' ' i 
TT#I 
'iii 



all 



i i i 



.11 

x*u 



•LULL 



1 1 1 1 

dim 


1 1 1 1 i 
X e; l l l I 


*l II ii 


i i i i i i 

© i i i i 


i i i i lit 
61 I I i 1 I 


i i i i iii 

•1 1 1 1 1 I 1 
i i j i iii 



to 



#1 



•L 
XI 



m. 



1 1 



o 

EL 
to 

o 

o 



I I I I 



I I 1 

feLLL 
I I 

I 

ml 



rrrW 






ifc 



3 



K/ 



«JC 



I J J i l 



11^ 
#1 I 



"•Lli 



l i 

•1 



MJLU 



i 



16 



APPENDIX. 



MAJOR SCALES, Sec— Continued, 



i 2 

~ pa 

*~ v. ^3 

co C O 
S " o 



— " 2. 

8K 



o r 



3 a 
c r 



co r. 



m 
if? 

•- C -3 

I?* 

£§'$ 

3 ° » 

• MM 

5 2 



g 5 

g g 8 

5' 2 



til 



I 1^1 

i I 
ii 



w tl 



* 



* 



re 



#111 



X 






1 I 1 
111 



I I 



i i i 



IQL 



#11 
I I I 



! 1 

f|W 
I 



t i i 

nt 



I ijOt 
TT# 
ijnr 



tW 



i i 

fcLL 



X 



i i i 

#11 



tl 



3 X 









ii 



1 1 



» 1 ! 



I I* 



xtl 



•L 



X 



* 

II 



feL 



I3t 

it. 



i*i 

I teULL 
• i i i i 

i i i i i A 

thf4l 
■ 1 1 1 1 

nna x 



1 1 1 



inn® 

itrt* 

I I ijqr 



TTT# 

IH 1 

nt 



T* 



,"■1 

i i I i 

ttt#ik> 
mil i 

«I W-H- 



I i 



• i 



w #1 



I I I 

J I 



U_LI 



#11111 I 



i i 



o 

o 
td 



I I W 

tf *i i 1 1 1 

#i i i i 
• i 

i 



1 1 1 
#i_i_i 

feLLL 



^ItJJJ 

I I I I - 

I «LL 



1#i 



n# 
i 1 1 



r 
jTTn# 



1 1 
mi 



x« 



I I I* 

1*1 
i i i i 

LU 



w 



1 1 1 1 1 

1 teUJ. 
i i i j i 

i*i i f 

x m ) 1J 

41 Mi 


i i i i i 

tl 1 1 1 1 


iitiii 
tl 1 1 1 1 


#i i i if i 
j 1 1 1 1 1 



t 

i# 
i 

x 



x 



mn 



o 
o 



III! 

ItLH 
it f i 

l#ll 

I I I 1 

rrm i 

; 1 1 1 ii i 

rn*ix 
1 1 1 1 





Tmi 
■ 1 1 1 


1 1 it 
ii. 


rrntx 

i > ii 


1 1 1 it 

! ' 1 1 




! ! 1 ft 




1 ! 1 f 
1 1 1 1 1 » 

i i ? * i i 

1 1 1 1 It 
i i i i i i 




1 1 It 
i i » i i 


1 1 1 It 

i i i i i 




1 1 1 It 
i i t i 




1 1 It** 
i • i i 


• 


1 1 M 

• « i » 



nr#i 

! I i i » 

7T»!w 
■ i i i i 

I l l I l 

I ItLLL 

I till 
• i i i i 

tow I I 
ii 

til 



i i i i 
JLLLl 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06385 022 4